The army of Brunswick was raised from volunteers by German-born Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. The Duke was a harsh opponent of Napoleon Bonaparte's occupation of his native Germany and the corps initially comprised a mixed force when it was formed in 1809, around 2,300 men comprised of infantry, cavalry and later supporting artillery. The Brunswickers earned themselves a fearsome reputation, taking part in several significant battles including Quatre Bras and Waterloo. Recruiting and finance were always problematic and the corps was disbanded in the early 1820s. Most units wore black uniforms, though some light units (such as sharpshooters and uhlans) wore green uniforms initially, moving to black or grey by 1815.

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