French

In 1777, the British had launched an invasion from Quebec intended to isolate the New England Colonies, but part of the army went on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, leaving Burgoyne's force to be decisively defeated at Saratoga in October. This defeat caused France to declare alliance with the Americans and enter the war in 1778. Spain then joined the war the following year as an ally of France (but not of the US). A Franco-American army besieged the British army and, with no sign of relief, they surrendered in October 1781.
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