Russian troops initially occupied the Danubian Principalities, which had been under Ottoman control, and began to cross the Danube. The Ottomans fought a strong defensive campaign and managed to stop the advance. France and Britain joined the war to strengthen the Ottomans, pushing the Russians back to Sevastopol. After two unsuccessful Russian counterattacks, the front settled into a siege and led to brutal conditions for troops on both sides. Sevastopol eventually fell after eleven months and more countries joined the Allied cause. Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion from the west if the war continued, Russia sued for peace and the war was ended by the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 March 1856.

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