Marlburian

The Marlburian period covers the War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1715), triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, Charles II. Without an heir, power fell to Philip, the second-eldest grandson of King Louis XIV of France. To counter this, England, the Dutch Republic, and Austria re-formed the 1680s Grand Alliance (1701) and supported Emperor Leopold I's claim to the Spanish inheritance for his son, Archduke Charles. The English, Dutch and Austrians formally declared war in May 1702. By 1708, the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy had secured several victories but Allied unity broke and the Grand Alliance was defeated in Spain. With the Tories coming to power in Great Britain in 1710, they resolved to end the war and ceased combat operations in 1712. The Dutch, Austrians, and German states fought on but after defeat by Marshal Villars, they had to accept Anglo-French mediation. The conflict ended by partitioning the Spanish empire with the Austrians receiving most of Spain's former European realms, while the Duke of Anjou retained peninsular Spain and Spanish America.

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