Spanish Civil War

The Second Spanish Republic was created in 1931, after decades of failed governments, political instability, corruption and social inequality.  A Popular Front Government was elected in 1936 but political turmoil and civil unrest continued and in July 1936 the army attempted a coup.  The coup failed and civil war ensued between supporters of the government, known as Republicans, and the rebels who became known as Nationalists.  The Republicans were supported by the left generally, including Anarchists, Marxists, Communists, the trade unions, the Communist International (Comintern) and the USSR.  The Nationalists were supported by the right including the Army of Africa, the church, landowners, the Falange, Carlists, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany.  The Metropolitan army was split, approximately half, including the larger part of the officer corps, supported the Nationalists.  The remainder supported the Republic, or were located in Republican territory and disarmed.  The western democracies took a position of non-intervention.  Principal battles included the siege of Madrid and the battles of Jarama, Guadalajara, Teruel, Brunete, Bechite and The Ebro.  Madrid fell to the Nationalists in MArch 1939. The war ended in April 1939 and is sometimes seen as a precursor to WW2.